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Regulators cannot hold back the tide of changes to maintain the status quo. To a large extent, existing operators are able to change their business models to stay afloat. For example, OTT services manifest themselves on networks as traffic. If network builders and operators align revenue models more with traffic, their financial position is more secure. This would reverse current trends * In 2009-2010, 20 OECD countries had no data caps at all among their broadband offers. One of these changed in May 2011 when ATT slapped 150Gb and 250GB data caps on its DSL and U-Verse (fibre) customers. .

Figure 5.2: Growth of Flat-Rate Pricing Strategies for Broadband Internet

Source: Figure 4, Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP), GSR Discussion Paper , November 2009

These changes are disruptive and inconvenient for those with a stake in existing arrangements. But the benefits of change outweigh the costs. For example, VoIP leads to dramatic reductions in the cost in telecommunication and this has beneficial impacts on the development of business and economic growth. India found that VoIP opened up new employment opportunities with call centres serving overseas markets.

Regulators generally support innovation. They prevent fixed and mobile operators from blocking or degrading competing services.

VoIP has been around for a number of years but there are several other ‘over-the-top’ (OTT) concepts that will become increasingly important. The concepts are all the product of the digitisation of fixed and mobile networks. Key concepts include:

Our focus in this module is on what these concepts mean for the regulation of competition and pricing. But we shall look also at consumer protection and other issues that arise in the context of VoIP.

Peter Ingram Applications (Apps) Cloud Services Internet Television

VoIP is the first of the apps enabled by IP to threaten traditional telecommunications business models because they depended on voice revenues (and mostly still do). Policy and regulatory issues and responses have evolved with the maturity of the VoIP market.

Table 5.1: VoIP Regulatory Issues

Source: Adapted from Table 1, VoIP enemy or Ally?, GSR 2009, P Biggs

The key policy issue is how to regulate VoIP compared with the telephone services it replaces * In Australia, the government-owned national broadband network (NBN) will replace approximately 93% of the copper PSTN with a fibre-to-the-premise network. The Network Terminating Device supports 2 voice (and 4 data) ports which will support voice. An ATA adaptor will be provided so that existing telephones can be used. But at the time of writing (November 2011), the responsibility for providing battery back-up (needed to satisfy standard telephone service standards for emergency calling) was unresolved. or displaces. Some countries view VoIP as a voice service while others view it as data: a ‘value-added’ or ‘information’ service. For example, Bolivia, Czech Republic, Egypt, Jordan and the United States view VoIP as data, while Dominica views it as voice. In the European Union, VoIP can be classified as either an Electronic Communication Service or as a Publicly Available Telephone Service.

The length property of the splice method is 2 .

NOTE The function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its value be an Array object. Therefore it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method. Whether the function can be applied successfully to a host object is implementation-dependent.

The arguments are prepended to the start of the array, such that their order within the array is the same as the order in which they appear in the argument list.

When the unshift method is called with zero or more arguments item1 , item2 , etc., the following steps are taken:

The length property of the unshift method is 1 .

NOTE The function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its value be an Array object. Therefore it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method. Whether the function can be applied successfully to a host object is implementation-dependent.

indexOf compares searchElement to the elements of the array, in ascending order, using the internal Strict Equality Comparison Algorithm ( Salvatore Ferragamo Quilted Bow Pumps Free Shipping Shop Buy Cheap Low Shipping For Nice For Sale uIE7bifElV
), and if found at one or more positions, returns the index of the first such position; otherwise, -1 is returned.

The optional second argument fromIndex defaults to 0 (i.e. the whole array is searched). If it is greater than or equal to the length of the array, -1 is returned, i.e. the array will not be searched. If it is negative, it is used as the offset from the end of the array to compute fromIndex . If the computed index is less than 0, the whole array will be searched.

When the indexOf method is called with one or two arguments, the following steps are taken:

The length property of the indexOf method is 1 .

NOTE The function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its value be an Array object. Therefore it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method. Whether the function can be applied successfully to a host object is implementation-dependent.

lastIndexOf compares searchElement to the elements of the array in descending order using the internal Strict Equality Comparison Algorithm ( 11.9.6 ), and if found at one or more positions, returns the index of the last such position; otherwise, -1 is returned.

The optional second argument fromIndex defaults to the array's length minus one (i.e. the whole array is searched). If it is greater than or equal to the length of the array, the whole array will be searched. If it is negative, it is used as the offset from the end of the array to compute fromIndex . If the computed index is less than 0, -1 is returned.

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Nearly all states have an alternative route that involves post-graduate teacher preparation. Candidates following this route to become a teacher attend a teacher preparation program as would traditional-route educators. The major difference between this option and traditional teacher preparation is that alternative route candidates are completing preparation after earning a bachelor’s degree, as opposed to traditional route candidates who usually complete teacher preparation as part of a bachelor’s degree.

Because candidates pursuing certification through these programs already hold undergraduate degrees, many programs are available that lead to the award of a master’s degree while qualifying graduates for teacher licensure. Master’s degree programs usually take two years to complete, whereas certificate-only programs can be completed in as little as one year in many states. Due to growing acceptance of alternative routes, many schools now offer online alternative teacher certification programs. You can read more about online master’s programs for new teachers through our online master’s in education guide , which also features our unique ranking of the top schools offering online teaching programs.

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In addition to university and college based teacher preparation programs, there are many national and regional transitional alternative programs. Three of the largest and best-known national programs are the American Board for the Certification of Teacher Excellence (ABCTE) , which offers online alternative preparation programs in the 11 states where it is accepted; Teach for America , which is a pathway to licensure in over 25 states and metro areas; and Reef Cushion Bounce Slide Womens Inexpensive Cheap Price 440bEN
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Since each state has different guidelines on which programs will be accepted, prospective teachers should be sure to check with their state’s current requirements for alternative certification programs.

The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is a national, non-profit organization that offers certification for accomplished educators. NBPTS certification is widely respected, and in some cases can be used as a stepladder to state licensing. States that incorporate NBPTS certification as a route to teacher licensing include Latest Sale Online Vince Camuto Carran Slide Sandal Womens Official Online nnXNpuYIP
and New Hampshire . In other states, NBPTS certification may not meet the requirements for initial licensure, but may allow those who hold the certification to advance to a higher-level license.

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